Chloropicrin
| 来源-本站收集整理 | 作者-本站 | 2012-05-23

chloropicrin
** trichloronitromethane ** chlorpicrine ** PS ** Translations

Environmental Fate - Ecotoxicology - Human Health

GENERAL INFORMATION

Description: A preplant soil fumigant used to control soil borne fungi, diseases and nematodes

Introduction: 1908

EC Directive 1107/2009 (repealing 91/414):

Status Excluded from Annex 1 (Re-submitted)
Dossier rapporteur/co-rapporteur Italy
Date inclusion expires 12/2012

Approved for use (√ ) or known to be used (#) in the following European countries:

AT

BE

BG

CY

CZ

DE

DK

EE

ES

FI

FR

GR

HU

IE

IT

LT

LU

LV

MT

NL

PL

PT

RO

SE

SI

SK

UK

Also registered in: USA

General status:

Pesticide type Insecticide, Nematicide
Substance group Unclassified
Substance origin Synthetic
Mode of action Via vapour, exact mode of action is non-specific
CAS RN 76-06-2
EC number 200-930-9
CIPAC number 298
US EPA chemical code 081501
Chemical formula CCl3NO2
SMILES ClC(Cl)(Cl)[N+]([O-])=O
International Chemical Identifier (InChI) InChI=1/CCl3NO2/c2-1(3,4)5(6)7
Structure diagram/image available? Yes
Molecular mass (g mol-1) 164.37
IUPAC Name trichloronitromethane
CAS Name trichloronitromethane
Other status information Potential groundwater contaminant; Marine Pollutant
Herbicide Resistance Classification (HRAC) Not applicable
Insecticide Resistance Classification (IRAC) 8B
Fungicide Resistance Classification (FRAC) Not applicable
Physical state Colourless liquid
Related substances & organisms -

Formulations:

Property Value
Example manufacturers of products using this active
  • Dewco-Lloyd
  • K&S Fumigation
Example products using this active
  • Chloropicrin Fumigant
  • K&S Chlorofume
UK LERAP status None
Formulation and application details Vapour releasing products that are usually applied with specialised injection equipment or hand-operatated equipment for small areas.


ENVIRONMENTAL FATE

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Solubility - In water at 20oC (mg l-1) 10000 A5 High
Solubility - In organic solvents at 20oC (mg l-1) 500000 A5 - Acetone -
500000 A5 - Ethanol -
500000 A5 - Xylene -
500000 A5 - Hexane -
Melting Point (oC) Not applicable Q3 - freezes at -70 DegC -
Boiling Point (oC) 114 A5 -
Degradation point (oC) - - -
Flashpoint (oC) Not highly flammable A5 -
Octanol-water partition coefficient at pH 7, 20oC P 3.16 X 1002 Calculated -
Log P 2.5 A5 - @ 25 degC Low
Bulk density (g ml-1)/Specific gravity 1.66 A5 -
Dissociation constant (pKa) at 25oC Not applicable A5 -
Note: No dissociation
Vapour pressure at 25oC (mPa) 2670000 A5 Volatile
Henry's law constant at 25oC (Pa m3 mol-1) 4.38 X 1001 A5 Moderately volatile
Henry's law constant at 20oC (dimensionless) 1.80 X 10-02 Calculated Volatile
GUS leaching potential index 1.06 Calculated Low leachability
SCI-GROW groundwater index (礸 l-1) for a 1 kg ha-1 or 1 l ha-1 application rate Value 2.38 X 10-03 Calculated -
Note -
Potential for particle bound transport index - Calculated Low
Maximum UV-vis absorption L mol-1 cm-1 Neutral solution: 203.7nm = 1648, 274nm = 32; [Acidic solution: 204.4nm = 1512, 274.2nm = 28; [Basic solution: 275nm = 33 A5 -
Surface tension (mN m-1) 71.0 A5 -

Degradation:

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Soil degradation (days) (aerobic) DT50 (typical) 3 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (lab at 20oC) 7.2 A5 Non-persistent
DT50 (field) 3.0 A5 Non-persistent
DT90 (lab at 20oC) 38.8 A5 -
DT90 (field) - - -
Note EU dossier Lab studies DT50 3.7-21.8 days, field study DT50 0.48-5.6 days 2 soils; Other sources: DT50 1.0 day (DW3)
Aqueous photolysis DT50 (days) at pH 7 Value 1.3 A5 Moderately fast
Note -
Aqueous hydrolysis DT50 (days) at 20oC and pH 7 Value Stable W4 Very persistent
Note Stable pH 5 to pH 9
Water-Sediment DT50 (days) - - -
Water phase only DT50 (days) - - -

Soil adsorption and mobility:

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Linear Kd - - -
Koc -
Notes and range -
Freundlich Kf 0.66 A5 Mobile
Kfoc 60.5
1/n 0.91
Notes and range EU dossier Kf range 0.414-1.15, Kfoc range 24.9-122 mL/g, 1/n range 0.68-1.08, Soils=4
pH sensitivity No

Other known metabolites:

Metabolite name and reference Aliases Formation Medium / Rate Estimated Maximum Occurrence Fraction Metabolising Enzymes
dichloro(methyl)hydroxylamine - Soil leachate - -
chloroform - Soil trace -
chloromethane - Soil (Anaerobic) trace -
nitromethane - Soil (Anaerobic) 0.03 -
dichloronitromethane - Soil - -


ECOTOXICOLOGY

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Bio-concentration factor BCF - A5 Low risk -
CT50 (days) Not available -
Bioaccumulation potential - Calculated Low
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 250 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Short term dietary NOEL (mg kg-1) 8 A5 Rat High
(ppm diet) - -
Birds - Acute LD50 (mg kg-1) 62.0 A5 Colinus virginianus High
Birds - Short term dietary (LC50/LD50) 108 mg kg-1 A5 Colinus virginianus -
Fish - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.0048 A5 Oncorhynchus mykiss High
Fish - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) - - -
Aquatic invertebrates - Acute 48 hour EC50 (mg l-1) 0.150 A5 Daphnia magna Moderate
Aquatic invertebrates - Chronic 21 day NOEC (mg l-1) 0.0025 A5 Daphnia magna -
Aquatic crustaceans - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) 0.030 F3 Americamysis bahia High
Sediment dwelling organisms - Acute 96 hour LC50 (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, static, water (mg l-1) - - -
Sediment dwelling organisms - Chronic 28 day NOEC, sediment (mg kg-1) - - -
Aquatic plants - Acute 7 day EC50, biomass (mg l-1) 0.014 A5 Lemna minor Moderate
Algae - Acute 72 hour EC50, growth (mg l-1) 0.00011 A5 Raphidocelis subcapitata High
Algae - Chronic 96 hour NOEC, growth (mg l-1) - - -
Honeybees - Acute 48 hour LD50 (礸 bee-1) > 12.2 A4 Inhalation Moderate
Earthworms - Acute 14 day LC50 (mg kg-1) 37.8 A5 Eisenia foetida Moderate
Earthworms - Chronic 14 day NOEC, reproduction (mg kg-1) - - -
Other soil macro-organisms - e.g. Collembola LR50product ha
EC50product ha
NOECproduct ha
% Effect
100 A5 Folsomia candida, % Mortality [Dose: 3 l ha-1] -
Other arthropod (1) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect 100 Mortality
Dose: 1350 kg ha-1
A5 Poecilus cupreus
Harmful
Other arthropod (2) LR50 g ha-1 - - -
% Effect - - -
Soil micro-organisms Nitrogen mineralisation: Chronic effect [Dose: field rate]
Carbon mineralisation: No significant effect [Dose: 5 x field rate]
Bacterial populations: No significant effect
A5 -
Mesocosm study data NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -
NOEAEC mg l-1 - - -


HUMAN HEALTH AND PROTECTION

General:

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg-1) 250 A5 Rat Moderate
Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg-1 body weight) - - -
Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l-1) 0.044 A5 Rat -
Other Mammal toxicity endpoints - -
ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.001 A2 Rat, SF=100 -
ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.001 A2 Rat, SF=250 -
AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg-1bw day-1) 0.002 A2 Rat, SF=300, operator -
Dermal penetration studies (%) 100 A3 default -
Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - -
Exposure Limits [LT TWA 8hr: 0.67 mg/m3] (OES) EEC -
Exposure Routes Public [Bystander exposure unlikely based on typical patterns of use], [Minimal risk of dietary exposure]
Occupational [Risk of exposure acceptable under label recommendations for use for personal protection clothing and equipment], [Risk of exposure by inhalation]
Examples of European MRLs (mg kg-1) Value All: 0.01
Note [A5 EU dossier proposals]
For the EU pesticides database click here
Drinking Water MAC (g l-1) 0.1 EU Dir 89/778/EC limit; Calc MAC=3 g/l; A5 -

Health issues:

Carcinogen Mutagen Endocrine disrupter Reproduction / development effects

×

?

-

?

Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor Neurotoxicant Respiratory tract irritant Skin irritant Eye irritant

-

-

General human health issues [Highly toxic]

 

√ : Yes, known to cause a problem
× : No, known not to cause a problem
? : Possibly, status not identified
- : No data

Handling issues:

Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation
General [Not explosive or oxidising], [IMDG Transport Code is usually 6.1]
EC Risk Classification [T+ - Very toxic: R26], [Xn - Harmful: R22], [Xi - Irritant: R36/37/38]
EC Safety Classification S1/2, S36/37, S38, S45
WHO Classification FM - Fumigant, not classified
US EPA Classification (formulation) II - Warning - Moderately toxic
UN Number Usually 1580
Waste disposal & packaging [Usually Packaging Group I (great danger)]


TRANSLATIONS

Language Name
English chloropicrin
French chloropicrine
German Chlorpikrin
Danish chloropicrin
Italian cloropicrina
Spanish cloropicrina
Greek -
Slovenian klorpikrin
Polish chloropikryna
Swedish -
Hungarian -
Dutch chloorpikrine




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